Unit 9: Democracy and Human Rights
“No one is born hating another person because of the colour of his skin or his background or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite.” -Nelson Mandela
Inauguration Speech of Nelson Mandela
BEFORE YOU READ
(a) Work in pairs. Look at the photos and share what you know about them.
(b) What do these individuals share in common?
Now, read a short biography of Nelson Mandela and his Inauguration Speech.
Nelson Mandela, in full Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, byname Madiba, (born July 18, 1918 — died December 5, 2013), was a black nationalist and the first black president of South Africa (1994–99). He fought against apartheid, a policy that governed relations between South Africa’s white minority and nonwhite majority and sanctioned racial segregation and political and economic discrimination against nonwhites.
He sacrificed his private life and his youth for his people. He spent 27 years in prison for his protests and became the world’s most famous political prisoner. He continued to fight until peace, justice and stability was established in the country. Later, he became the first Black President of South Africa through the democratic election. Nelson Mandela was born in Transkei, South Africa. He was a member of the Thembu tribe, and his father was the chief of the Thembu people. He got a good modern education.
When he was sixteen, he was sent to a boarding school. He attended South African Native College (later the University of Fort Hare) and studied law at the University of the Witwatersrand; he later passed the qualification exam to become a lawyer. In 1944, he joined the African National Congress (ANC) and continued to oppose the apartheid policies of the ruling National Party. Nelson and the other ANC leaders organized strikes and several other protests. Mandela was charged with organizing an armed wing of the ANC, and was arrested in 1962. As a result, he was sentenced to life imprisonment.
Nelson Mandela was the most famous prisoner in the world for his anti-apartheid movement. He refused to compromise his political position to obtain his personal freedom from the prison. He wanted all people of all races to have equal rights in South Africa. ‘Free Mandela’ became a rallying cry throughout the world.
After a long campaign of resistance within South Africa and the international pressure, President F.W. de Klerk released Mandela from prison in 1990, after 27 years. After his release, Mandela continued his campaign to end apartheid, and establish justice and peace in South Africa. As a result, Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
One year later in April 1994, a national election was held, and that was open to all South Africans. Nelson Mandela, who represented the ANC, won the election and became the first Black President of South Africa. The inauguration of South Africa’s first Black President was attended by politicians and dignitaries from more than 140 countries around the world.
Here is the Inaugural Speech delivered by Nelson Mandela in Pretoria, the capital of South Africa, on May 10, 1994:
Your Majesties, Your Royal Highnesses, Distinguished Guests, Comrades and Friends! Today, all of us do, by our presence here, and by our celebrations in other parts of our country and the world, confer glory and hope to newborn liberty.
Out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long, must be born a society of which all humanity will be proud.
Our daily deeds as ordinary South Africans must produce an actual South African reality that will reinforce humanity’s belief in justice, strengthen its confidence in the nobility of the human soul and sustain all our hopes for a glorious life for all. All this we owe both to ourselves and to the people of the world who are so well represented here today.
To my compatriots, I have no hesitation in saying that each one of us is as intimately attached to the soil of this beautiful country as are the famous jacaranda trees of Pretoria and the mimosa trees of the bushveld.
Each time one of us touches the soil of this land, we feel a sense of personal renewal. The national mood changes as the seasons change.
We are moved by a sense of joy and exhilaration when the grass turns green and the flowers bloom.
That spiritual and physical oneness we all share with this common homeland explains the depth of the pain we all carried in our hearts as we saw our country tear itself apart in a terrible conflict, and as we saw it spurned, outlawed and isolated by the people of the world, precisely because it has become the universal base of the pernicious ideology and practice of racism and racial oppression.
We, the people of South Africa, feel fulfilled that humanity has taken us back into its bosom, that we, who were outlaws not so long ago, have today been given the rare privilege to be host to the nations of the world on our own soil. We thank all our distinguished international guests for having come to take possession with the people of our country of what is, after all, a common victory for justice, for peace, for human dignity.
We trust that you will continue to stand by us as we tackle the challenges of building peace, prosperity, non-sexism, non-racialism and democracy.
We deeply appreciate the role that the masses of our people and their political mass democratic, religious, women, youth, business, traditional and other leaders have played to bring about this conclusion. Not least among them is my Second Deputy President, the Honourable F.W. de Klerk.
We would also like to pay tribute to our security forces, in all their ranks, for the distinguished role they have played in securing our first democratic elections and the transition to democracy, from blood-thirsty forces which still refuse to see the light.
The time for the healing of the wounds has come.
The moment to bridge the chasms that divide us has come.
The time to build is upon us.
We have, at last, achieved our political emancipation. We pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discrimination.
We succeeded to take our last steps to freedom in conditions of relative peace. We commit ourselves to the construction of a complete, just and lasting peace.
We have triumphed in the effort to implant hope in the breasts of the millions of our people. We enter into a covenant that we shall build the society in which all South Africans, both black and white, will be able to walk tall, without any fear in their hearts, assured of their inalienable right to human dignity – a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world.
As a token of its commitment to the renewal of our country, the new Interim Government of National Unity will, as a matter of urgency, address the issue of amnesty for various categories of our people who are currently serving terms of imprisonment.
We dedicate this day to all the heroes and heroines in this country and the rest of the world who sacrificed in many ways and surrendered their lives so that we could be free.
Their dreams have become reality. Freedom is their reward.
We are both humbled and elevated by the honour and privilege that you, the people of South Africa, have bestowed on us, as the first President of a united, democratic, nonracial and non-sexist South Africa, to lead our country out of the valley of darkness.
We understand it still that there is no easy road to freedom.
We know it well that none of us acting alone can achieve success.
We must therefore act together as a united people, for national reconciliation, for nation building, for the birth of a new world.
Let there be justice for all.
Let there be peace for all.
Let there be work, bread, water and salt for all.
Let each know that for each the body, the mind and the soul have been freed to fulfill themselves.
Never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another and suffer the indignity of being the skunk of the world.
Let freedom reign.
The sun shall never set on so glorious a human achievement!
God bless Africa!
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